On Quantum Physics
The Copenhagen and von Neumann formulations of quantum theory are non-deterministic. Both specify that human choices enter into the dynamics, but neither specifies the causal origins of these choices. The question thus arises: whatdetermines these choices? One possibility is that these choices arise in some yet-to-be-specifiedway from what we conceive to be theidealike aspect of reality. That option was pursued by Penrose, with his suggestion that our thoughts are linked to Plato’s world of idealforms. Another – seemingly
different – possibility is that there is a more complete physical description that involves physically described entities that are different from the smeared out structures of the orthodox formulations, and that these other physical elements determine the features left undetermined by the orthodox formulations. [Read more] ...