Informal Sector



Allen, T.F.H. and Thomas W. Hoekstra. 1992. Toward a Unified Ecology. N.Y.: Columbia University Press.

Anderson, Eugene. 1996. Ecologies of the Heart: Emotion, Belief, and the Environment. New York: Oxford University Press. The author argues that sustainable use, management, and conservation of natural resources depends not only on rationality and hard facts, but also on beliefs and emotions. Traditional indigenous and other societies that invest heart and soul as well as mind and body in caring for their environment usually do so successfully.

Atkinson, Jeff. 1994. “GATT: What do the Poor Get?” Background Report No. 5. Melbourne, Australia: Community Aid Abroad, p. 12).

Avery, Dennis T. 2003. “Organic Farming Harms the Environment and Threatens Human Health.” In Cothran (ed.). 2003. supra. Pp.  84- 93.

Baskin, Yvonne. 2005. Underground: How Creatures of Mud and Dirt Shape Our World. Washington. Island Press.

Baskin, Yvonne. 1997. The Work of Nature: How the Diversity of Life Sustains Us. California: Island Press.

Berkes, Fikret. 1999. Sacred Ecology: Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resources Management. Philadelphia: Taylor & Francis.

Bhagavad-Gita: Song of God. 1972. New York: New American Library. 3rd ed. Cohasset, Mass.: Ventura Centre. Translated by Swami Prabhavananda and Christopher Isherwood.

Bicket, Dougie. n.d. “Technological Determinism, Colonialism, and Postcolonialism.” A brief bibliographic essay that attempts to tie these ideas together. techdet.htm

Biswas A. K. (1979). "Climate, Agriculture and Economic Development." In Biswas M. R. & Biswas A. K. (eds.) Food, climate and man. John Wiley and Sons.

Carmichael, David L., et al., eds. 1994. Sacred Sites, Sacred Places. New York: Routledge.

Carroll, John E., and Keith Warner, eds. 1998. Ecology and Religion: Scientists Speak. Quincy, Ill.: Franciscan Press.

Chang Jen-Hu. (1977). "Tropical Agriculture, Crop Diversity And Crop Yields." Economic Geography Vol 53 No 3.

Cothran, Helen. 2003. Global Resources: Opposing Viewpoints. Farmington Hills, MI: Greenhaven Press.

D’Agnese, Joseph. 2002. “Technology May Affect Human Nature.” In Ojeda (ed.), 2002, op. cit., pp. 177-185.

David Kinsley. 1995. Ecology and Religion: Ecological Spirituality in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Prentice-Hall.

Darrell Addison Posey and others. 1999. Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity. London: International Technology Publications. United Nations Environmental Programme.

Dimbleby, Jonathan. 2003. “Organic Farming Protects the Environment and Sustains Human Life.” In Cothran, 2003, supra. Pp. 77-83.

Earth Ethics. Fall 1998. Religions of the World and Ecology: Discovering Common Ground. Earth Ethics Special Issue 10(1):1-32.

Economist, “Genetically Engineered Foods Should Be Produced.” In Cothran, Helen. 2003. supra. pp. 60-67.

Edwards, Jo, and Martin Palmer. 1997. Holy Ground: The Guide to Faith and Ecology. Northamptonshire, UK: Pilkington Press.

Fishbine, Glenn. 2002. The Investor’s Guide to Nanotechnology and Micromachines. N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Fusco, Coco. 2004. “Critique of Techno-Globalism.” In These Times. December 16, 2004.

Goodenough, Ursula. 2002. “The Contribution of Scientific Understandings of Nature to Moral, Spiritual, and Religious Wholeness and Well-Being.” In Kellert, Stephen R. and Timothy J. Farnham (eds.). 2002. The Good in Nature and Humanity: Connecting Science, Religion, and Spirituality with the Natural World. Washington: Island Press. Pp. 19-28.

Goodman, David, Bernardo Sorj & John Wilkinson. 1987. From Farming to Biotechnology. N.Y.: Basil Blackwell Ltd.

Gott R. (1985). The Guardian, August 20.

Gottlieb, Roger. 1996. This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, Environment. New York: Routledge.

Grim, John. 2000. Indigenous Traditions and Ecology. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Harris, Marvin. 1979. Cultural Materialism: The Struggle for a Science of Culture. New York: Random House. Marvin developed cultural materialism as a research strategy within cultural anthropology. Materialism asserts that causal primacy most likely stems from the material conditions of existence, rather than ideas. Accordingly, materialism assigns research priority to the material over the mental.

Harvey, Graham. 1997. Contemporary Paganism: Listening People, Speaking Earth. New York: New York University Press.

IMF. 1997. World Economic Outlook. Globalization: Opportunities and Challenges.  Washington, DC. May 1997.

James, William.  1958. The Varieties of Religious Experience. N.Y.: New American Library

Joseph, Lawrence E. 1990. Gaia: The Growth of an Idea. New York: St. Martin’s Press.

Juma, Calestous. 1989. The Gene Hunters: Biotechnology and the Scramble for Seeds. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.

Kellert, Stephen R. and Timothy J. Farnham (eds.). 2002. The Good in Nature and Humanity: Connecting Science, Religion, and Spirituality with the Natural World. Washington: Island Press.

Kellert, Stephen R. and Timothy J. Farnham (eds.). 2002. “Building the Bridge: Connecting Science, Religion, and Spirituality with the Natural World.” In Kellert, Stephen R. and Timothy J. Farnham (eds.). 2002. The Good in Nature and Humanity: Connecting Science, Religion, and Spirituality with the Natural World. Washington: Island Press. Pp. 1-7.

Khalid, Fazlun M. and Joanne O’Brien. 1992. Islam and Ecology. London: Cassell Ltd.

Kinsley, David. 1995. Ecology and Religion: Ecological Spirituality in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.

Lansing, Stephen J. 1991. Priests and Programmers: Technologies of Power in the Endangered Landscape of Bali. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. The author, with a multidisciplinary team of colleages in applied systems ecology and computer simulation, constructed a model of how temple priests in Bali regulate irrigation waters for wet rice paddies through their religious beliefs and rituals. He demonstrated the efficacy of the natural functions of the supernatural.

Lappé, Marc and Britt Bailey. 1998. Against the Grain: Biotechnology and the Corporate Takeover of Your Food. Monroe, ME: Common Courage Press.

Livingston, David N. 2002. “Ecology and the Environment.” In Ferngren, Gary B. (ed.). 2002. Science and Religion: A Historical Introduction. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press. Pp. 345-355.

Lovelock, James. 1988. The Ages of Gaia: A New Look at Life on Earth. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Mahon, Tom. 2002. “Technology Has Harmed Society.” In Ojeda (ed.), 2002, op. cit., pp. 18-22.

McCamant, James D. (ed.). 2002. Biotech Investing: Every Investor’s Guide. Cambridge, MA: Perseus Publishing.

Merchant, Carol 1992 Radical Ecology. New York. Routledge, Cahapman & Hall Inc.

Naess, Arne. 1972. "The Shallow and the Deep, Long-Range Ecology Movement. A Summary," Inquiry, 16 (1972): 95-100.

Nelson, John E., ed. 1996. Purifying the Earthly Body of God: Religion and Ecology in Hindu India. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Nelson, Richard K. 1983. Make Prayers to the Raven: A Koyukon View of the Northern Forest. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Norse, Elliott A., Kenneth L. Rosenbaum, David S. Wilcove, Bruce A. Wilcox, William H. Romme, and David W. Johnston. 1986. Conserving Biological Diversity in Our National Forests. Washington, D.C.: The Wilderness Society.

Noss, Reed F. and Allen Y. Cooperrider. 1994. Saving Nature’s Legacy: Protecting and Restoring Biodiversity. California: Island Press.

Nottingham, Stephen. 1998. Eat Your Genes: How Genetically Modified Food is Entering Our Diet. London and New York: Zed Books Ltd.

Odum, Eugene P. 1997. Ecology: A Bridge Between Science and Society. Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates, Inc.

Ojeda, Auriana (ed.). 2002. Technology and Society: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, California: Greenhaven Press, Inc.

Pinker, Steven. 2002. “Technology Will Not Affect Human Nature.” In Ojeda (ed.), 2002, op. cit., pp. 186-191.Prime, Ranchor. 1992. Hinduism and Ecology. London: Cassell.

Raman, V.V. 2002. “Technology Has Improved Society.” In Ojeda (ed.), 2002, op. cit., pp. 18-23-39.

Rappaport, Roy. 1984. Pigs for the Ancestors: Ritual in the Ecology of a New Guinea People. 2d ed. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press. The author provided the most detailed, empirical, and elegant application of the systems approach in ecological anthropology to document and explain the natural function of the supernatural. His fieldwork with the Tsembaga of Papua New Guinea is the first substantial ethnography in spiritual ecology. He analyzed Tsembaga ritual and warfare as mechanisms regulating the delicate balance between the human and pig populations to reduce competition between them.

Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo. 1971. Amazonian Cosmos: The Sexual and Religious Symbolism of the Tuka no Indians. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo. 1976. “Cosmology as Ecological Analysis: A View from the Rainforest.” Man 11(3):307-18.

Reijntjes, Coen, Bertsus Haverkort, and Ann Waters-Bayer. 1995. Farming for the Future: An Introduction to Low-External-Output and Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA). London: MacMillan.

Rifkin, Jeremy. 1998. Harnessing the Gene and Remaking the World: The Biotech Century. New York: Penguin Putnam Inc.

Rowe, J. Stan. 1990. “Technology and Ecology.” In Home Place, Essays in Ecology, NeWest Books, Edmonton, pp. 63-70. 

Rose, Aubrey. 1992. Judaism and Ecology. London: Cassell.

Schauberger, Viktor. 1998. Nature as Teacher: New Principles in the Working of Nature. U.K.: Gateway Books.

Sheelban, James M. “Globalized Free Trade Will Protect Global Resources.” In Cothran (ed.). 2003. supra. Pp. 179-186.

Sheldrake, Rupert. 1994. The Rebirth of Nature: The Greening of Science and God. Rochester, Vt.: Park Street Press.

Shiva, Vandana. 2003. “Genetically Engineered Foods Should Not Be Produced.” In Cothran, supra. Pp. 68-76.

Sponsel, Leslie E. 2001. “Do Anthropologists Need Religion, and Vice Versa? Adventures and Dangers in Spiritual Ecology.” In Crumley, Carole L. 2001. New Directions in Anthropology & Environment: Intersections. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Pp. 177-200.

Taylor, Herry. 2003. “Sustainable Development Is Unnecessary.” In Cothran (ed.). 2003. supra. Pp. 202-209.

Tobias, Michael. 1991. Life Force: The World of Jainism. Berkeley, Calif.: Asian Humanities Press.

Tucker, Mary Evelyn. 2001. “Religion and Ecology: The Interaction of Cosmology and Cultivation.” In Kellert, Stephen R. and Timothy J. Farnham (eds.). 2002. The Good in Nature and Humanity: Connecting Science, Religion, and Spirituality with the Natural World. Washington: Island Press. Pp.65-89.

Tucker, Mary Evelyn. 1997. “The Emerging Alliance of Religion and Ecology.” Worldviews: Environment, Culture and Religions. 1(1):3-24.

Tucker, Mary Evelyn, and John Berthrong, eds. 1998. Confucianism and Ecology: The Interrelations of Heaven, Earth, and Humans. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press and Center for the Study of World Religions.

Tucker, Mary Evelyn, John A. Grim, eds. 1993. Worldviews and Ecology. Lewisburg, Pa.: Bucknell University Press.

VanCleave, Janice. 1996. Ecology for Every Kid: Easy Activities that Make Learning Science Fun. N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Veldt, Danja Van Der. 2002. “Sustainable Development Is Necessary to Protect Global Resources.” In Cothran (ed.). 2003. supra. Pp. 194-201.

Venkat, Kumar. 2003. “Thinking Small: Globalization and the Choice of Technology.” Kumar Venkat, who was born and raised in India, works in Silicon Valley's high-tech industry and writes frequently about the social impacts of technology.

Watson, James D. 1969. The Double Helix. Mentor Science.

White, Lynn, Jr. 1967. (March 10). “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis.” Science 155:1203-7.

Whole Earth. 1997. The Earth in Crisis: Religion’s New Test of Faith. Special Issue no. 91.

Wilson, Colin. 1996. The Atlas of Holy Places and Sacred Sites. New York: DK Publishing.

Wilson III, Ernest J. 1998. “Globalization, Information Technology, and Conflict in the Second and Third Worlds: A Critical Literature Review.” Project on World Security. Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Inc. Accessed on July 15, 2005 over the Internet at

Wolff, George. 2001. The BioTech Investor’s Bible. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Wood, Stanley. 2003 “Globalized Free Trade Can Exhaust Global Resources.” In Cothran (ed.). 2003. supra. Pp. 187-194.

Yount, Lisa. 2000. Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering. New York: Facts on Life, Inc.

Yoxen, E. 1983. The Gene Business. London: Pan.



1988 "Buddhism, Ecology and Forests in Thailand," Leslie E. Sponsel and Poranee Natadecha-Sponsel in Changing Tropical Forests: Historical Perspectives on Today's Challenges in Asia, Australasia, and Oceania, John Dargavel, Kay Dixon, and Noel Semple, eds. Canberra, Australia: Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, pp. 305-325 .

1991 "Nonviolent Ecology: The Possibilities of Buddhism," L.E. Sponsel and P. Natadecha-Sponsel in Buddhism and Nonviolent Global Problem-Solving: Ulan Bator Explorations, Glenn D. Paige and Sarah Gilliatt, eds. Honolulu, HI: Center for Global Nonviolence and Spark M. Matsunaga Institute for Peace, pp. 139-150.

1992 "Thailand: Buddhism, Ecology and Forests," L.E. Sponsel and P. Natadecha-Sponsel) The New Road (Gland, Switzerland) December 1991-January 1992, 21:4-5.

1992 "A Comparison of the Cultural Ecology of Adjacent Muslim and Buddhist Villages in Southern Thailand: A Preliminary Field Report," L.E. Sponsel and P. Natadecha-Sponsel in Journal of the National Research Council of Thailand (Bangkok) 23(2):31-42.

1993 "The Relevance of Buddhism for the Development of an Environmental Ethic for the Conservation of Biodiversity," L.E. Sponsel and P. Natadecha-Sponsel in Ethics, Religion, and Biodiversity: Relations Between Conservation and Cultural Values, Lawrence S. Hamlton, ed. Cambridge, U.K.: White Horse Press, pp. 75-97.

1995 "The Role of Buddhism in Creating a More Sustainable Society in Thailand," L.E. Sponsel and P. Natadecha-Sponsel in Counting the Costs: Economic Growth and Environmental Change in Thailand, Jonathan Rigg, ed. Singapore: Institute for Southeast Asia Studies, pp. 27-46,

1997 "A Theoretical Analysis of the Potential Contribution of the Monastic Community in Promoting a Green Society in Thailand," L.E. Sponsel and P. Natadecha-Sponsel in Buddhism and Ecology: The Interconnection of Dharma and Deeds, Mary Evelyn Tucker and Duncan Williams, eds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions, pp. 45-68.

1997 "Environment and Nature: Buddhism," L.E. Sponsel in Encyclopaedia of Science, Technology, and Medicine in Non-Western Cultures, Helaine Selin, ed. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 290-291.

1998 "Sacred and/or Secular Approaches to Biodiversity Conservation in Thailand," L.E. Sponsel, P. Natadecha-Sponsel, Nukul Ruttanadakul, and Somporn Juntadach, invited by guest editor Kay Milton for the special issue on biodiversity of the journal Worldviews: Environment, Culture, Religion 2(1):155-167.

2001, "Human Impact on Biodiversity, Overview," in Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Simon Asher Levin, Editor-in-Chief, San Diego, CA: Academic Press 3:395-409.

2001, "Do Anthropologists Need Religion, and Vice Versa? Adventures and Dangers in Spiritual Ecology," New Drections in Anthropology and Environment: Intersections, Carole Crumley, ed., Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, pp. 177-200.

2001 "Is Indigenous Spiritual Ecology a New Fad?: Reflections from the Historical Ecology of Hawaii and the Ecological Transition," in Indigenous Traditions and Ecology, John Grim, ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Center for the Study of World Religions, pp. 159-174.

2001 "Why a Tree is More than a Tree? Reflections on the Spiritual Ecology of Sacred Trees in Thailand," L.E. Sponsel and Poranee Natadecha-Sponsel, Santi Pracha Dhamma, Sulak Sivaraksa, et al., eds., Bangkok, Thailand: Santi Pracha Dhamma Institute, pp. 364-373..

2001, Sanctuaries of Culture and Nature: Sacred Places and Biodiversity Conservation, L.E. Sponsel, ed. (edited book manuscript under review).

2001, Thailand: Explorations in Ecology, Culture and Religion, L.E. Sponsel and P. Natadecha-Sponsel (first draft of book completed).

2001, Natural Wisdom: Meditations on Buddhist Ecology from Thailand, L.E. Sponsel and P. Natadecha-Sponsel (first draft of book completed).

Rowe, J. Stan. 1990. “Technology and Ecology.” In Home Place, Essays in Ecology, NeWest Books, Edmonton, pp. 63-70. 

In 1995, David Kinsley published the first major textbook on this subject, Ecology and Religion: Ecological Spirituality in Cross-Cultural Perspective (Prentice-Hall), while a year later Roger S. Gottlieb edited a monumental benchmark anthology, This Sacred Earth: Religion, Nature, Environment (Routledge).